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The production design model Braden Smith Black Jersey , first revealed to the public on September 16, 2008, differed greatly in design from the original concept car. Citing necessary aerodynamic changes needed to extend the Volt’s initial full-charge range, the Volt uses GM’s new “Delta II” platform, shared by the planned 2010 Chevrolet Cruze and the 2012 Saab 9-3. GM claimed that the production model’s drag coefficient would be lower than the 0.25 drag coefficient of the Toyota Prius, which uses a Kammback body.The production vehicle has a drag coefficient of 0.29.
Design and production timeline
To help spur battery research, GM selected two companies to provide advanced lithium-ion battery packs: Compact Power (CPI) Darius Leonard Black Jersey , which uses manganese spinel based cells made by its parent company, LG Chemical; and Continental Automotive Systems, which uses nanophosphate based cylindrical cells made by A123Systems However, on August 9, 2007, GM established a more close-knit relationship with A123Systems so that the two companies could co-develop a Volt-specific battery cell. This cell was later unveiled at the EVS23 industry convention in Anaheim, CA. Work with CPI continued at a rapid pace Quenton Nelson Black Jersey , and in late 2007 CPI delivered two fully functional prototype battery packs to GM’s testing facilities. On January 31, 2008, A123 and Continental delivered their first prototype to GM’s European test facilities. GM will use LG Chem batteries for the production model.
Apparently Saab engineers played a key role in vehicle development of the Volt power train.
GM was expecting ten years of life out of the batteries. As of early 2008, they had started extensive battery testing and planned to have 10-year battery results in two years. Batteries were placed in the Chevrolet Malibu for further real-world testing. In April 2008, GM Vice Chairman Bob Lutz said that the first battery test mule was now running with a lithium-ion battery pack. By that summer, GM confirmed that a non-turbocharged, 1.4 liter 4-cylinder engine would be used as the range extender Authentic Le'Raven Clark Jersey , and that the intention is to build it in Flint, Michigan. In August 2008, Andrew Farah, the car’s chief engineer, stated that the project remains on-track to hit the 2010 deadline saying “at this point, there’s nothing standing in our way of continuing to do what we said we’re going to do.”
In April 2009, GM allowed journalists to test the Volt power train in the body of Chevrolet Cruze sedans used as test mules which lacked the range-extending generator. The driving tests were conducted at GM Technical Center in Warren Authentic Ryan Kelly Jersey , Michigan. Several of the journalists noted that the Volt mule’s drive in electric mode is quiet and smooth, without any of the typical noises in commercially available hybrids when accelerating or decelerating. In November 2009, a journalist described the ‘feel’ of driving the car as it transitioned from electric to generator mode as “the engine’s initial engagement is inaudible and seamless”
The first pre-production test car based on the final Volt design was built in June 2009, in Warren, Michigan, and by October 2009, 80 Volts had been built and are being tested under various conditions. On March 31 Authentic Nyheim Hines Jersey , 2010, the first factory-built Volt was produced at the Detroit Hamtramck Assembly Plant in order to test the production line and for quality control purposes, both of the tooling and the pre-production vehicles produced before regular production began.
by Marzia De Giuli, Jin Yu
MILAN, Italy, Jan. 19 (Xinhua) -- An audience of fashion lovers found themselves overwhelmed with art when they watched the show of Dolce&Gabbana men's fall-winter 2016-2017 collection at the Milan fashion week which closed here on Tuesday.
Models of different ethnic origins walked down the runway dressed in modern clothes enriched with embroidery and needlepoint decor reminiscent of the Wild West, such as cacti Authentic Henry Anderson Jersey , roses and guns.
The soundtrack of the fashion show were the unmistakable scores of veteran Italian composer Ennio Morricone, who made his name with the "Spaghetti Western" movies, to which the 79-piece collection paid homage.
"I was deeply touched by the memories of these classics while listening to the music that Morricone composed for these movies," said spectator Sara Bellini.
"I am not a fashion industry expert, but my mother used to have a clothing store so that I developed a taste for beautiful clothing, and here I loved to see how a memory can be accessed contemporarily," she said.
The Milan-based fashion house Authentic T.J. Green Jersey , founded in 1985 by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana, said that the collection was "a declaration of love for Italy and its culture."
"There was an interesting contrast between embroideries and embellishments and the shapes, cut and fit," noted Orazio Marano. Pajamas were paired with jackets and embroidered knits.
"I loved this mix of fashion and art which created a relaxed atmosphere, with the models all different from each other and a pervasive sense of creativity," another spectator Patrizia Torta, told Xinhua.
The "Spaghetti Western" movies directed by Sergio Leone in the 1960s brought the Italian movie industry to the attention of the world.
Earlier this month Authentic Marlon Mack Jersey , Morricone, 87, won the Golden Globe for best original score for Quentino Tarantino's The Hateful Eight and last week was nominated for an Academy Award. Morricone, who has over 500 soundtrack credits to his name, received a career achievement Oscar in 2007.
Music and different forms of art also walked down the runways of other fashion houses in Milan. Emporio Armani's fall-winter collection opened to the strains of "Space Oddity" on Monday in a tribute to the late star David Bowie.
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